We operate and maintain a groundwater treatment facility for an Industrial client in the northeastern United States. The treatment facility was designed to remove per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nuisance metals from extracted groundwater. A recent change in the groundwater discharge standard for 1,4-Dioxane required upgrades to the treatment facility’s process treatment to improve 1,4-Dioxane removal efficiency. We are currently involved in the design of the full-scale facility upgrades to enhance 1,4-Dioxane removal while achieving treatment goals for PFAS, VOCs, and other constituents.
A tiered approach was used for technology selection for the treatment facility. Based on preliminary technology screening, two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (ultraviolet [UV]/peroxide and Fenton’s chemistry) and one adsorptive (Ambersorb™) treatment process were selected for bench or pilot testing. A cost evaluation was performed in parallel for the piloted technologies.
Based on the demonstrated treatment efficacy and the life-cycle cost evaluation, 1,4-Dioxane oxidation using Fenton’s chemistry was selected as the preferred treatment technology for the facility. Fenton’s chemistry oxidation demonstrated complete destruction of 1,4-Dioxane in bench and pilot-scale studies at the lowest cost for all options evaluated. In this instance, the application of Fenton’s chemistry for 1,4-Dioxane treatment utilizes an innovative and sustainable approach that uses the groundwater’s native high iron content, eliminating the need for the addition of allochthonous sources of ferrous iron. The site’s existing infrastructure (solids handling) can also be reutilized, resulting in a treatment option with the lowest capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for implementation.